Miniaturization Rules Capacitor Innovation

Torpedo Data Computer (TDC)
Defense: The Torpedo Data Computer (TDC) was one of the first electromechanical analog computers small enough to fit within a submarine and was used during WWII (1939–1945) to automatically track targets.

To-date, the evolution of electronic components such as capacitors, resistors, diodes, and RF filters has trended toward continued miniaturization while retaining as many parametric as possible and, at times, adding functionality. Improvements across multiple scientific fields have contributed to these designs, but the most notable progress includes purer ceramic, tantalum, and thin-film materials and improved processes, such as closed-loop manufacturing (CLM).

These shifts have enabled extremely accurate computer-aided design (CAD) models which can be translated into marketable, real-world parts. Inventive combinations of other techniques, including packaging designs, fine copper terminations, and photolithography have further expanded components for miniature circuit designs.

Key drivers
OEMs and their electronics designers are looking for miniaturized parts to optimize circuit and system performance, satisfy physical design requirements, and improve product aesthetics. Smaller parts also typically operate at higher speeds with lower parasitics, making them more compatible with integrated circuit (IC) advancements.
Over time & markets

Miniaturized capacitor use has evolved from very specialized applications to more mainstream markets. Some highlights include:

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